The following outline was compiled at Śrīla Bhakti Nirmal Āchārya Mahārāj’s request as an appendix to the most recent edition of Śrī Chaitanya Sāraswat Maṭh’s pañjikā (almanac). Here it has been translated from the original Bengali text, which was excerpted from the writings of Śrīla Bhakti Vinod Ṭhākur and other Āchāryas in the Rūpānuga sampradāya.

The Four Types of Anarthas (Obstacles to Devotion)

(Śrīla Bhakti Vinod Ṭhākur’s Bhajana-rahasya)

(1) Tattva-vibhrama: misconception of the Truth.

(a) Sva-tattva-bhrama: misconception of one’s true self.

(b) Para-tattva-bhrama: misconception of the Supreme.

c) Sādhya-sādhana-bhrama: misconception of the goal of life and the means to attain it.

(d) Virodhī-viṣaya-bhrama: misconception of that which is antithetical.

(2) Asat-tṛṣṇā: desire for illusory ends.

(a) Bhukti: enjoyment.

–Worldly enjoyment in the form of family, wealth, luxury, and so on.

–Heavenly enjoyment in the form of a birth in a heavenly paradise after death.

(b) Siddhi: supernatural powers.

–Aṇimā: becoming smaller than the smallest;

–Mahimā: becoming greater than the greatest;

–Laghimā: becoming lighter than the lightest;

–Prāpti: acquiring whatever one desires;

–Prākāmya: experiencing any enjoyable object, either in this world or the next;

–Īśitva: capacity to manipulate Māyā’s sub-potencies;

–Vaśitva: becoming unimpeded by the three modes of material nature;

–Kāmāvasāyitā: the ability to acquire anything from anywhere, to the highest possible limit.

c) Mukti: liberation from birth and death.

(3) Aparādha: offences.

(a) Nāma-aparādha: offences against the Holy Name.

(b) Sevā-aparādha: offences made during service and worship.

c) Vaiṣṇava-aparādha: offences against Vaiṣṇavas.

(d) Dhāma-aparādha: offences against the Holy Dhām.

(e) Jīva-aparādha: offences against other souls.

(4) Hṛdaya-daurbalya: weakness of the heart.

(a) Tuchcha-āsakti: attachment to things unrelated to Kṛṣṇa and His service.

(b) Kuṭīnāṭī: duplicity.

c) Mātsarya: envy; coveting the good fortune of others.

(d) Pratiṣṭhāśā: desire for name and fame.

The Ten Offences to The Holy Name (Nām-aparādh)

(Śrī Padma-purāa)

(1) Criticising sādhus.

(2) Considering any of the gods to be lords independent of Kṛṣṇa.

(3) Disobeying Śrī Guru.

(4) Criticising the scriptures.

(5) Considering the Holy Name’s glory exaggerated praise.

(6) Considering the Holy Name imaginary.

(7) Considering that one can sin (and be absolved) because one chants the Holy Name.

(8) Considering chanting the Holy Name equivalent to pious worldly works.

(9) Giving the Holy Name to faithless persons on account of material attachment.

(10) Remaining devoid of love for the Holy Name and filled with egotism and possessiveness even after hearing the Holy Name’s glories.

The Four Forms of Criticising Sādhus

(Śrīla Bhakti Vinod Ṭhākur’s Hari-nāma-chintāmai)

(1) Jāti-doṣ: to criticise a sādhu for a fault in the circumstances of his birth.

(2) Kadāchikta-doṣ: to criticise a sādhu for an accidental, unintentional, or unknowing fault.

(3) Naṣṭa-prāya-doṣ: to criticise a sādhu for faults that are almost rectified.

(4) Pūrva-doṣ: to criticise a sādhu for faults that occurred prior to his surrendering.

The Thirty-Two Types of  Sevā-Aparādha

(1) Entering the Lord’s Temple in a vehicle or while wearing shoes.

(2) Not celebrating the Lord’s birthday and other Pastimes.

(3) Not offering obeisance when coming before the Deity.

(4) Worshipping the Deity with an unclean body or while in an impure state.

(5) Offering obeisance with one hand.

(6) Strolling or pacing before the Deity.

(7) Spreading one’s legs before the Deity.

(8) Sitting before the Deity while holding up one’s knees with one’s forearms.

(9) Lying down before the Deity.

(10) Eating before the Deity.

(11) Telling lies before the Deity.

(12) Speaking loudly before the Deity.

(13) Conversing privately before the Deity.

(14) Crying before the Deity.

(15) Quarrelling before the Deity.

(16) Chastising someone before the Deity.

(17) Being charitable to someone before the Deity.

(18) Behaving or speaking cruelly towards common people.

(19) Serving the Deity while covered with a wool, fur, or down blanket.

(20) Criticising others before the Deity.

(21) Praising others before the Deity.

(22) Using foul language before the Deity.

(23) Passing air before the Deity.

(24) Financial fraud, that is, organising a festival or offering worship at a lower cost or with fewer ingredients than one is able to provide.

(25) Taking items that have not been offered to the Deity for oneself.

(26) Not offering fruits and grains to the Deity when they are fresh.

(27) Giving the best part of collected ingredients to others and offering the remains to the Deity.

(28) Sitting with one’s back to the Deity.

(29) Offering obeisances to others before the Deity.

(30) Remaining quiet and not offering praise, obeisance, and so on before Śrī Gurudev.

(31) Praising oneself before Śrī Gurudev.

(32) Criticising the demigods.

The Ten Offences to the Holy Dhām

(1) Disrespecting Śrī Guru and the sādhus, who are the revealers of the Dhām.

(2) Considering the Dhām temporary.

(3) Harming the residents and visitors of the Dhām, or judging them by their birth.

(4) Residing in the Dhām and engaging in mundane activities.

(5) Earning money by, or making a business of, Deity worship on the pretext of serving the Dhām.

(6) Considering the Dhām equal to places of demigods or material land.

(7) Considering that one can sin (and be absolved) because one resides in the Dhām.

(8) Considering Nabadwīp different from Vṛndāvan.

(9) Criticising the scriptures that glorify the Dhām.

(10) Considering the glory of the Dhām exaggerated praise or imaginary.

The Five Diseases

(1) Avidyā: ignorance of one’s true identity as an eternal soul and servant of Kṛṣṇa.

(2) Asmitā: identification with the material body and possessiveness about one’s transitory body, wife, sons, and so on.

(3) Rāga: obsession with facilities for the body.

(4) Dveṣ: revulsion to anything opposed to one’s enjoyment.

(5) Abhiniveś: absorption in things favourable to oneself and incapacity to sacrifice them.

The Four Defects of the Conditioned Soul

(Śrī Chaitanya-charitāmta)

(1) Bhrama: misunderstanding; mistaking one thing for another, such as a rope for a snake.

(2) Pramād: inattentiveness.

(3) Vipralipsā: deceit; the desire to cheat.

(4) Karaṇāpāṭava: sensory deficiency; being unable to see a long distance or a small object, being unable to hear something situated far away, or mistaking one colour for another.

The Threefold Miseries of Material Existence

(Śrīla Bhakti Siddhānta Saraswatī Ṭhākur’s Anubhāya on Śrī Chaitanya-charitāmta)

(1) Ādhyātmika-tāp: miseries caused by the self.

(a) Bodily misery: fever, cold, and all other illnesses.

(b) Mental misery: separation from one’s companions and all other forms of anxiety.

(2) Ādhibhautika-tāp: miseries caused by other living beings.

(a) Miseries caused by living entities born from wombs.

(b) Miseries caused by living entities born from eggs.

© Miseries caused by living entities born from moisture.

(d) Miseries caused by living entities born from vegetation.

(3) Ādhidaivika-tāp: miseries caused by the forces of nature.

(a) Miseries caused by the demigods, such as Indra, Sūrya, and so on, such as severe cold, lightning, and so forth.

(b) Miseries caused by evil spirits, such as the Yakṣas and Piśāchas, such as inauspiciousness, distress, danger, and so on.

The Four Pillars of Dharma

(1) Truthfulness.

(2) Mercy.

(3) Cleanliness.

(4) Austerity.

The Four Pillars of Irreligion

(1) Falsehood.

(2) Pride.

(3) Selfish desire.

(4) Violence (envy).

The Five Places of Kali

(Śrīmad Bhāgavatam)

(1) Dyūta: dice, cards, chess, horse racing, the lottery, and other sorts of gaming or gambling. Its basis is falsehood, and it destroys the virtue of truthfulness. (Śrīla Bhakti Siddhānta Saraswatī Ṭhākur notes that Kali is always creating newer and newer forms of games to lead people away from dharma.)

(2) Pāna: alcohol, wine, ganja, tobacco, opium, and any other intoxicant. Its basis is pride, and it destroys the virtue of mercy.

(3) Strī: illicit association with the opposite sex, attachment to one’s spouse, and association with those who engage in illicit association. Its basis is lust, and it destroys the virtue of purity.

(4) Sūnā: taking the life of an animal for the sake of one’s own body. Its basis is violence, and it destroys all virtues (truthfulness, mercy, cleanliness, and austerity). Anyone who kills an animal, as well as any one who prepares, cooks, transports, sells, serves, or eats it, is implicated in such sin.

(5) Jāta: gold, silver, money, and other forms of wealth. Within these, falsehood, pride, lust, violence, and enmity are all present.

Unfavourable Urges

(Śrī Upadeśāmta)

(1) The urge to speak: using words in a way that disturbs others.

(2) The urges of the mind: various types of desires.

(3) The urge of anger: using harsh language, and so on.

(4) The urge of the tongue: desire for the six tastes: sweet, sour, pungent, salty, astringent, and bitter.

(5) The urge of the belly: excessive eating.

(6) The urge of the genitals: the desire for sex.

Obstacles to Devotion

(Śrī Upadeśāmta)

(1) Atyāhāra: excessive eating or accumulation.

(2) Prayās: materialistic endeavours or activities that are opposed to devotion.

(3) Prajalpa: unnecessary talk of village matters to pass the time.

(4) Niyamāgraha: attachment to regulations meant for persons in a lower stage or indifference to regulations that nourish devotion.

(5) Jana-saṅga: association with persons other than pure devotees and their followers.

(6) Laulya: being fickle-minded in the company of followers of other conceptions and being attracted to insignificant matters.

Favourable Qualities for Devotion

(Śrī Upadeśāmta)

(1) Utsāha: engaging in devotional practices with enthusiasm and adoration.

(2) Niśchay: firm faith.

(3) Dhairya: not slackening one’s practice upon seeing that a long time is needed to reach the goal.

(4) Bhakti-poṣaka karma: activities nourishing to devotion: hearing, chanting, making a sacrifice of one’s happiness for Kṛṣṇa’s sake, and so on.

(5) Saṅga-tyāga: avoiding bad association, that is, the association of the irreligious, those who associate inappropriately with the opposite sex, those who are excessively attached to their spouse, and non-devotees, namely materialists, illusionists, atheists, and religious hypocrites.

(6) Sad-vṛtti: following the disciplines and professions by which the sādhus practise and maintain their lives.

Nourishing Association for Devotion

(Śrī Upadeśāmta)

(1) Affectionately giving a devotee useful materials.

(2) Accepting materials given by devotees.

(3) Discussing confidential subjects with devotees.

(4) Asking devotees about confidential subjects.

(5) Eating rice and other foods given by devotees.

(6) Affectionately feeding devotees.

The Steps on the Path of Pure Devotion

(Śrīla Rūpa Goswāmī Prabhu’s Śrī Bhakti-rasāmta-sindhu)

(1) Śraddhā: Faith in the scriptures’ meaning, developed by hearing the scriptures from the sādhus.

(2) Sādhu-saṅga: Taking shelter at the feet of Śrī Guru to learn the practice of bhajan.

(3) Bhajana-kriyā: Practicing hearing, chanting, and other forms of service according to Śrī Guru and the sādhus’ instructions.

(4) Anartha-nivṛtti: Removing sins, misconceptions, sorrows, and so forth, which are opposed to the ultimate goal of life.

(5) Niṣṭhā: Constant, undeviating service.

(6) Ruchi: Insightful desire for the Lord and His service.

(7) Āsakti: Natural attraction to the Lord and His service.

(8) Bhāva: That which melts the heart with divine attraction to the Lord and His service; the rays from the sun of prema.

(9) Prema: Intense bhāva that completely melts the heart and fills one with intense affectionate attachment.

The Symptoms of Unsteadiness in Devotional Practice (Bhajana-kriyā)

(Śrīla Viśvanāth Chakravartī Ṭhākur’s Śrī Mādhurya-kādambinī)

(1) Utsāhamayī: sudden enthusiasm.

(2) Ghana-taralā: (lit. thick-thin) wavering endeavour.

(3) Vyūḍha-vikalpā: indecision.

(4) Viṣaya-saṅgarā: struggle with the mundane.

(5) Niyamākṣamā: inability to follow guidelines.

(6) Taraṅga-raṅgiṇī: Attachment to the by-products of devotional practice—wealth, enjoyment, adoration, and so on (lit. dabbling in the waves of the ocean of bhakti).

The Five Obstacles in Devotional Practice (Bhajana-kriyā)

(Śrīla Viśvanāth Chakravartī Ṭhākur’s Śrī Mādhurya-kādambinī)

(1) Laya: lethargy; becoming drowsy while engaged in hearing, chanting, remembering, and other devotional practices.

(2) Vikṣepa: distraction; discussing or remembering ordinary matters while engaged in devotional practices.

(3) Apratipatti: indifference; feeling that one is unable to engage in devotional practice.

(4) Kaṣāya: sin; being captivated by anger, greed, pride, and so on, while engaged in devotional practice.

(5) Rasāsvāda: Taste for the mundane; not being consciously immersed while engaged in devotional practice because of one’s attachment to material enjoyment.

The Sixty-Four Practices of Devotion

(Śrīla Bhakti Vinod Ṭhākur’s Amta-pravāha-bhāya on Śrī Chaitanya-charitāmta.)

(1) Taking shelter at Śrī Guru’s feet.

(2) Accepting initiation.

(3) Serving Śrī Guru.

(4) Asking and learning about true religion.

(5) Following the sādhus’ path.

(6) Sacrificing one’s own enjoyment out of love for Kṛṣṇa.

(7) Residing in Kṛṣṇa’s abode.

(8) Accepting only what is required to maintain one’s life.

(9) Observing Ekādaśī.

(10) Honouring myrobalan trees, banyan trees, cows, brāhmaṇs, and Vaiṣṇavas.

(11) Avoiding offences to the Name and the Deity.

(12) Giving up non-devotees’ association.

(13) Not making many disciples.

(14) Not partially studying and commenting upon numerous texts.

(15) Being equipoised towards loss and gain.

(16) Not becoming subdued by lamentation.

(17) Not disrespecting other Deities or scriptures.

(18) Not listening to blasphemy of the Lord or His devotees.

(19) Not listening to village talk (any talk that pertains to sense gratification).

(20) Not disturbing others with one’s mind or words.

(21) Hearing about the Lord.

(22) Chanting about Lord.

(23) Remembering the Lord.

(24) Worshipping the Lord.

(25) Praying to the Lord.

(26) Serving the Lord.

(27) Having the attitude of being the Lord’s servant.

(28) Having the attitude of being the Lord’s friend.

(29) Surrendering oneself to the Lord.

(30) Dancing before the Deity.

(31) Singing for the Deity.

(32) Expressing one’s heart to the Deity.

(33) Offering obeisance to the Deity.

(34) Standing up out of respect when the Deity or a devotee arrive.

(35) Following the Deity or a devotee in procession.

(36) Visiting holy places and Temples of the Lord’s Deities.

(37) Circumambulating the Deity.

(38) Reciting hymns.

(39) Chanting japa.

(40) Chanting in congregation.

(41) Honouring incense, garlands, and so on, that have been offered to the Deity.

(42) Honouring mahāprasādam.

(43) Participating in āratis and festivals.

(44) Visiting the Deity.

(45) Offering what is dear to oneself to the Deity.

(46) Meditating.

(47) Serving Tulasī.

(48) Serving devotees.

(49) Serving the Lord’s abode.

(50) Relishing the Bhāgavatam.

(51) Endeavouring solely for Kṛṣṇa’s sake.

(52) Looking for the Lord’s mercy.

(53) Celebrating festivals with devotees honouring the Lord’s Pastimes.

(54) Surrendering in all respects.

(55) Observing Kārtik and other rites.

(56) Marking the body with devotional symbols.

(57) Marking the body with the Lord’s Names.

(58) Adorning the body with offerings of flowers made to the Deity.

(59) Drinking the Deity’s charaṇāmṛta.

(60) Associating with sādhus.

(61) Chanting the Name.

(62) Hearing Śrīmad Bhāgavatam.

(63) Residing in Mathurā.

(64) Faithfully serving the Deity.

sakala-sādhana-śreṣṭha ei pañcha aṅga
kṛṣṇa-prema janmāya ei pā̐chera alpa saṅga
(Śrī Chaitanya-charitāmṛta: Madhya-līlā, 22.125)

The last five practices are the best of all the practices of devotion. Even slight connection with these five practices causes divine love for Kṛṣṇa to arise.